What Is Exosome
Exosomes (typically 30-150 nm in size) control gene expression and protein function of cells effectively through the cargo of miRNA, mRNA, and proteins in exosomes. In 2013, three researchers for the discovery of the transport and regulation mechanism of intracellular vesicles (exosomes) were awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The growth factors, anti-inflammatory factors, and genetic material carried by exosomes play a role in tissue repair, immune regulation, tumor diagnosis, and immune antigen presentation. Exosomes induce cell differentiation and through paracrine signaling transfer their active ingredients to other cells. Stem cell-derived exosomes can effectively promote the proliferation of human skin fibroblasts, human hair follicle cells, and the production of collagen, which show surprisingly significant effects in skin repair, hair growth, anti-wrinkle, face-lifting, whitening, spot brightening, and anti-inflammatory.
Stem cell-derived exosomes can provide a powerful therapeutic potential for “cell-free” treatment of regenerative medicine, and their homing effect is remarkable in finding/focusing on the target tissue that needs to be repaired or acted on. Furthermore, exosomes can be refined into lyophilized powder with a long shelf life.